Tense:

Tense is the grammatical property of a verb that expresses the time of the action or state that it describes. It is relative to the time of speaking, which is called the absolute reference point. Aspect is the grammatical property of a verb that expresses the completeness or incompleteness of the action or state that it describes. It is relative to a reference event, which is called the relative reference point. The reference event can be the same time as the time of speaking, or it can be in the past or future. Cantonese does not have tense variations, only aspect variations. There are two kinds of aspect in Cantonese: progressive aspect (ganr) and perfective aspect (zor). 1, Progressive aspect (ganr) refers to when the event and the reference event are in the same time period. (1) The reference event is the same time as the time of speaking. Example sentence: "Ngoq douj wanrganr keoiq aa." Translation: I am also looking for him. Movie: "King of Comedy" (2) The reference event is in the past of the time of speaking. Example sentence: Gongjcoix ngoq gin dour louqsij waanrganr sanxdaar. Translation: Just now I saw the teacher playing martial arts. Movie: "Flirting Scholar" (3) The reference event is in the future of the time of speaking. Example sentence: yvxgwor ngoq saatzor neiq, neiq bou mungh beir Wongxdai tengj aax? Translation: If I kill you, will you soul tell the King in his dream? Movie: "Royal Tramp" 2, Perfective aspect (zor) refers to when the time of the event is before the time of the reference event. (1) The reference event is the same time as the time of speaking. Example sentence: Yixgaaj mxginzor zij coengj aa. Translation: Now, the gun is missed. Movie: "PTU" (2) The reference event is in the past of the time of speaking. Example sentence: Yiqcinx zijseon mxfaatdaath, zouhzor baanhsihyanx, mxhaih yanxyanx sikj dour neiq haih binj go. Translation: In the past, when information was not developed, being an official, not everyone knew who you were. Movie: "Election" Ngoq nej, zoengj ngoq sinjfuj gor zoengj baauj saangj zair ge yoekhfongj, beirzor Baauj daaihyanx wox. Keoiq sikhzor zijhauh, zauh soengjheir lamxmunx. Translation: I've given Mr. Baauj the hereditary nostrum. After taking the medicine, he was capable to have two sons. Movie: Hail the Judge (3) The reference event is in the future of the time of speaking. Example sentence: Neiq hour lekj aax? Gau daamr zauh sikhzor diph yifanr keoiq. Translation: Are you very smart? If you dare, eat his spaghetti. Movie: "Sixty Million Dollar Man" Sikhzor "Yatj Yath Hamhbaaujsaanr" ge yanx, yatj yath zijnoih wuiq mouqgungj cvnx satj. Translation: Those who eat 'yat yat fun bao saan' will lose all their martial arts in one day. Movie: "Flirting Scholar"